.

Assembly of nets

During assembly and closing of nets following must be kept in mind:

1. Solid fine-meshed net fabric.
Meshes of net have to be fixed and must not be shiftable

Netz_erweiterte Maschen_HeidrunVogtNetz_erweiterte Maschen_HeidrunVogt_Ausschnitt
Unsuitable net - The mesh of net have to be glued or welded so that the mesh could not be relocated
(© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Netz mit unregelmäßig verschweißten Maschen_copyright B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimNahaufnahme: Netz mit unregelmäßig verschweißten Maschen_copyright B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim
It needs to be checked that the mesh of the net is welded uniformly (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

2. Punctual closing of exclusion netting
With changing of fruit color, Spotted Wing Drosophila will be interested in fruit.
In cherries, also fruits of june fruit drop can shown infestation.

Color change cherries_H. Vogt_JKI (1)Farbumschlag Kirschen_H. Vogt_JKI (2)
Color changing of cherries
(© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Color changing of cherries
(© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Röteln bei Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimJune fruit drop pf cherries_B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim (2)
June fruit drop of cherries 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
June fruit drop of cherries
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Farbumschlag Heidelbeere_B. Boehnke_JKI (2)Color change blueberry_B. Boehnke_JKI (1)
Color changing of blueberries
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Color changing of blueberries
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Himbeeren_Farbumschlag_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimBrombeere_Farbumschlag_B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim
Color changing of raspberries
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Color changing of blackberries
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

3. Insertion of pollinators
If cherry culture will be closed early and especially in fruit crops with parallel growth of blossom
and fruits have to be inserted pollinators.

Frucht u. Blüte parallel_Himbeere_B. Boehnke_JKIFrucht u. Blüte parallel_Brombeere_B. Boehnke_JKI
Parallel raspberry blossom and fruits 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Parallel blackberry blossom and fruits
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

Commercial pollination systems

Kommerzielle Bestäubersysteme für sehr kleine Systeme_Hummeln_B. Boehnke_JKIKommerzielles Bestäubersytem mit drei Hummelvölkern für große Anlagen_Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKI
Pollination system for small protected cultures (Bombus terrestris terrestris). Only workers. (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Pollination system for big protected cultures (Bombus terrestris terrestris). Three bumblebee colonies.
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Pollination by bumble bees in foil tunnel with raspberry_C. Augel_LTZBestäubereinsatz Hummeln Kirschanlage_B. Boehnke_JKI
Pollination system in protected culture (Bombus terrestris terrestris). One bumbleebee colony in a netted blackberry foil tunnel. (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Pollination system in protected culture (Bombus terrestris terrestris). One bumbleebee colony in a netted cherry foil canopy. (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Einsatz kommerzieller Osmia-Bestäubersysteme_Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim (1)Kommerzilles Osmia Bestäubersystem_B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim (2)
Commercial masonry bee pollination system (Osmia sp.) 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Commercial masonry bee pollination system (Osmia sp.)
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

Settlement/ attracting of pollinators

Ansieldung Nützlinge_Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKIAnsiedlung Mauerbienen_ Kirschanlage_H. Vogt_JKI
Attracting of masonry bees 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Attracting of masonry bees
(© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Ansieldung Nützlinge_Heidelbeeren_B. Boehnke_JKIAnsieldung Nützlinge_Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKI
Attraction of masonry bees and beneficial insects
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Attraction of masonry bees and beneficial insects
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

4. All open areas have to be closed

To avoid entering of Spotted Wing Drosophila, all open areas have to be closed gapless with fine-meshed net (eaves, roof ventilation, lateral open areas and ventilation, entrance area)

Exclusion netting of lateral open area of a foil canopy_B. Boehnke_JKIAufbau Netze 2
Closing with net of lateral open area of a foil canopy in cherries (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Exclusion netting of headland of a foil canopy in cherries (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Mit Netz zu schließender Eingangsbereiche Folientunnel_Heidelbeere_B.Boehnke_JKIOffener Traufenbereich bei Folienüberdachungen_C. Augel_LTZ
Entrance areas of foil tunnels have to be closed with exclusion net (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Open eaves areas have to be closed with fine-meshed exclusion net (© C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg)
Mit Netz zu schließender seitliche Bereiche Folientunnel_Heidelbeere_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimOffener Folien-Netz-Übergang muss geschlossen werden_C. Augel_LTZ
Lateral ventilation systems of foil tunnels have to be closed with exclusion net (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossen-heim)Open foil-net connections have to be closed gapless with fine-meshd net (© C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg)
Offener Folien-Netz-Übergang muss geschlossen werden_B. Boehnke_JKIOffene Netzübergänge müssen geschlossen werden_B. Boehnke_JKI
Open foil-net connections have to be closed gapless with fine-meshd net (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Open net connections have to be closed gapless with fine-meshd net (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Mit Netz geschlossene offene Bereiche einer Folienüberdachung_Kirsche__B. Boehnke_JKI (2)Mit Netz geschlossene offene Traufenbereiche einer Folienüberdachung_Kirsche_B. Boehnke_JKI (1)
With fine-meshed net closed open areas in foil canopy (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)With fine-meshed net closed open areas in foil canopy (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Schließung der Traufe einer Folienüberdachung mit engmaschigem Netz_Kirschen_B. Boehnke_JKI.png
Closing of eaves of foil canopy with fine-meshed net (© D.-A. Ungan, JKI Dossenheim)

 

5. Correct gapless connection to ground level
It is necessary to ensure a correct gapless connection to the ground level.
Spotted Wing Drosophila is a fruit fly and prefer, especially at warm temperatures, higher humidity at the soil.
It will be recommended a connection to ground level by anchoring the net with wires or bungees, by burying net or by ballasting net with sand bags.
Because of financial reasons, often will be used stones or bricks for ballasting net.
This is not recommended because this can cause damages to the net and Spotted Wing Drosophila can entering the exclusion netting system.

Bodenabschluss durch Abspannung des Netzes mittels Expandern an einem gespannten Draht_J.H. Wiebusch_LWK Niedersachsen (1)Bodenabschluss durch Abspannung des Netzes mittels Expandern an einem gespannten Draht_J.H. Wiebusch_LWK Niedersachsen (2)
Correct connection to the ground level by anchoring the net with bungees on a stretched wire (© J.-H. Wiebusch, LWK Lower Saxony)Correct connection to the ground level by anchoring the net with bungees on a stretched wire (© J.-H. Wiebusch, LWK Lower Saxony)
Plaketten_Befestigung Netz_Bodendraht_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimFixing net_soil_C. Augel_LTZ Augustenberg
Connection to the ground level by fixing net with clamps/ brackets on a streched wire (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossen-heim)Connection to the ground level by fixing net with
clamps/ brackets on a streched wire (© C. Augel,
LTZ Augustenberg)
Beschwerung des Netzes mittels Sandsäcken am Bodenabschluss_B. Boehnke_JKIEinrollen des Netzüberstandes sowie Beschwerung des Netzes mittels Sandsäcken und Sand_B. Boehnke_JKI
Ballasting the overlapping net on ground level with sand bags (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Rolling up overlapping net in wooden beams and ballasting the net on ground level with sand bags and sand (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Bodenabschluss durch Beschweren des Netzes mit Erde_S. Benz_LWK NRWBodenabschluss durch Eingraben des Netzes_S. Benz_LWK NRW
Connection to the ground level by ballasting net with soil (© S. Benz, LWK NRW)Connection to the ground level by burying
overlapping net (© S. Benz, LWK NRW)

 

6. Avoid chafe marks
The net is not allowed to chafe on construction of foiltunnel / foil canopy (ropes, clamps, posts, linkage). To protect the net, such areas have to be covered with i.e. rubber, cloth or plastic.

Netzschutz an Pfoten durch Kunststoffabdeckung_B. Boehnke_JKI (1)Netzschutz an Pfoten durch Kunststoffabdeckung_B. Boehnke_JKI (2)
Net protection on wooden post by plastic cover 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Net protection on wooden post by plastic cover
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Netzschutz an Draht durch Klebeband_B. Boehnke_JKINetzschutz an Pfoten durch Stoff_B. Boehnke_JKI (1)
Net protection on wire by use of tape 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Net protection on tunnel racks by use of cloth
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Seile der Konstuktion sollten zum Schutz des Netzes mit z.B. runden Plastikrohren bedeckt werden_Bild 1_copyright B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimSeile der Konstuktion sollten zum Schutz des Netzes mit z.B. runden Plastikrohren bedeckt werden_Bild 2_copyright B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim
Ropes of the construction have to be covered with e.g. plastic tubes to protect the net
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Befestigung des Netzes mittels Schellen und zusätzlichem Scheuerschutz am Tunnelgestänge_C. Augel_LTZ
Connection of net by clamps and additional plastic cover between net and clamps to protect the net 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

7. No too taut stretched nets.
The nets are not allowed to be stretched too taut in order that the net don´t rupture during strong wind. The nets needs leeway to move.

Zu straff gespannte Netze führen zu hoher Windanfälligkeit_copyright B. Dinkhoff, LWK NRWSchlechtes Beispiel_Löcher durch zu straff gespannte Netze u. Nutzung von Steinen am Bodenabschluss_C. Augel_LTZ
Tautly stretched nets lead to high wind susceptibility
(© B. Dinkhoff, LWK NRW)
Tautly stretched nets and the use of stones for ballasting net at the ground level can cause fast damages (© C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg) 
Schlechtes Beispiel_Zu straff gespannte Netze u. zusätzliche Nutzung von Steinen am Bodenabschluss_C. Augel_LTZ
Tautly stretched nets and the use of stones for ballasting net at the ground level can quickly lead to damage (© C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg)

 

8. Readily accessible entrance
The entrance have to be opened and closed quickly.
After entering the exclusion netting system, the nets have to be closed immediatelly otherwise
Spotted Wing Drosophila can entering the system.

Eingenetztes Vorgewende copyright by Silke Ditzer, LWK NRWFolientunnel mit überlappendem Netz im Eingangsbereich_Brombeere_S. Benz_LWK NRW (2)
Electrically operated gate of a lateral netted foil canopy with netted headland (cherries) (© S. Benz, LWK NRW)Foil tunnel with overlapping nets in the entrance area
(© S. Benz, LWK NRW)

 

9. Exclusion netting of headland
In big systems, which have to be entered by machines for cultivation measures, should be netted the headland.

Eingenetztes Vorgewende modernes Foliendach-Netz-System_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimFolientunnel eingenetztes Vorgewende_K. Kramer_OVR
Interior view of canopied and netted headland of a modern commercial foil exclusion netting system of cherries (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)Netted headland with addition lock function of a modern foil tunnel (© K. Kramer, OVR)

 

10. The net must not have contact to the fruits
Risk: If net have contact with fruits, the Spotted Wing Drosophila is able to lay the eggs through
the meshes into fruit.

Direkt an Netz anliegende Kirschen_copyright Heidrun Vogt, JKI DossenheimAm Netz anliegende Heidelbeeren_C. Augel_LTZ Augustenberg
Directly to the net adjoining cherries
(© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Directly to the net adjoining blueberries
(© C. Augel. LTZ Augustenberg)
Hohe Gefahr der Eiablage der Kirschessigfliege durch das Netz in die am Netz anliegenden Kirschen_copyright Peter Burger, JKI DossenheimDirekt am Netz anliegende Kirschen mit zusätzlichem Fraß weiterer Insekten_copyright B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim
Great danger of oviposition of Spotted Wing Drosophila through the net into the adjoining cherries
(© P. Burger, JKI Dossenheim)
Directly to the net adjoining cherries with additional damage by further insects (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)

 

11. Regular control of nets to damages/ open net areas
Regular monitoring of net, especially after storm and strong rain, is recommended.

Geöffnete Plaketten und somit geöffnete Netze nach Sturm_C. Augel_LTZLücken am Bodenabschluss bei einem Netzübergang_B. Boehnke_JKI Dossenheim
Opened clamps and opened net in an exclusion netting system of blueberries after storm (© C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg)Open gaps at opverlapping nets at groubnd level
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Geöffneter Bodenabschluss nach Sturm_B. Boehnke_JKI
Opened connection to ground level after storm 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Schäden am Netz durch Scheuern an der Konstruktion_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimSchäden am Netz_H. Vogt_JKI Dossenheim
Damages on net caused by cafing on construction 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Damages an net (© H. Vogt, JKI Dossenheim)
Durch Mäuse verursachte Schäden am Netz_B. Boehnke_JKI DossenheimDamage 5_copyright by S. Ditzer, LWK NRW
Damages on ground level of net caused by mices 
(© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Damages on ground level of net caused by animals
(© S. Benz, LWK NRW)


12. Regular control of the net on the ground level to damages by weed growth
To avoid damages caused by weed growth, the net on the ground level have to be controlled regularly and strong weed growth have to be removed.
To reduce weed grwoth can be used woven plastic fabric. 

Net damages by volunteer plants on the ground level 1Unkrautdurchwuchs Netz am Bodenabschluss_B. Boehnke_JKI (2)
Net damages by weed growth on ground level (© C. Fetzer, LLH Hessen & B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim)
Net damage by weed growth_B. Boehnke_JKINet damage by weed growth1_C. Fetzer_LLH Hessen
Net damages by weed growth on ground level (© B. Boehnke, & C. Fetzer, LLH Hessen)
Bändchengewebe unter dem Bodenabschluss zum Schutz des Netzes vor Unkrautdurchwuchs_B. Boehnke_JKIBand fabric to protect the net by weed growth_C. Augel_LTZ
Underlaid plastic fabric to protect the net to weed growth (© B. Boehnke, JKI Dossenheim &
C. Augel, LTZ Augustenberg)

 

 

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